Friday, March 16, 2007

New WRV Mission in Warrenton, Virginia

Fr. Nicholas Alford of St. Gregory the Great parish reports in the latest issue of his (excellent) St. Gregory's Journal:
On Friday, March 30, at 7:30 PM, Bishop THOMAS will chrismate members of the Western Rite mission in Warrenton, Virginia. Fr. Nicholas has been meeting with this congregation for catechesis and will continue to serve them liturgically until Fr. Patrick Cardine is ordained as their priest. The service on March 30 will be a Sung Mass, and we anticipate attendance by priests from the region, as well as members of our other "sister" Western Rite congregation of Holy Trinity in Lynchburg. We rejoice with the people of Warrenton as they begin their life as Orthodox Christians in our archdiocese.
Glory to God that some good came out of the chaos in the Charismatic Episcopal Church (from whence this congregation came), and that God steered this parish to the Ark of Salvation. It is welcoming to see this is the second new mission in the Virginia area in a short period of time...and that dear Fr. Alford played a role in both missions. (I could praise him further, but I do not want to detract from his everlasting reward.) This is the latest in an explosion of new Western Rite Vicariate missions within the last calendar year, Deo gratias!

Most importantly, may God richly bless all these faithful awaiting chrismation, as they prepare for their new life of grace, readied to celebrate their first Paschal season in Orthodoxy.


Western Rite Centenary Celebration

[An exciting news item from this new blog. What a fitting and holy celebration of the spirit of the document. I would have loved to have been there. The pictures are quite nice, though. - BJ.]

LONDON 7th of March 2007: On Sunday the 4th of March, the Divine Liturgy of the Western Rite was celebrated at the nine hundred year old Saxon-Norman church of Saint Mary the Virgin at Capel-le-Ferne in Kent. Matins preceded the Divine Liturgy.

The celebration was in honour of the centenary of the decision of the Holy Synod of Russia to permit the adaption of services taken out of the Book of Common Prayer, for use by Orthodox people. The decision was made at the request of Saint Patriarch Tikhon (Belavin) of Moscow in 1904. A committee set up by the Holy Synod, which included Saint Tikhon, reported back to the Holy Synod in 1907, and the Synod acted upon its favourable report.

That decision followed in the spirit of a decision made by the Holy Synod thirty-seven years earlier, when it had legislated permission for an adaption of the Western Rite Liturgy of Saint Gregory to be used by Orthodox people.

The Liturgy celebrated this last Sunday was the “English Liturgy” taken from The Saint Colman Prayer Book, (authorised by Archbishop Hilarion (ROCOR) some years ago) the services from which are now in use by episcopal blessing in several ROCOR dioceses.

The celebrant at Capel-le-Ferne (picture below left) was Fr. Michael, superior of Saint Petroc Monastery (ROCOR) assisted by Fr. Barry Jefferies of Saint Stephen Mission, Launceston (ROCOR) and was attended by an invited congregation from Orthodox societies and parishes in England, the USA, Australia, France and Belgium. The choir was directed by Mr. Michael Astley from Manchester.

The Western Rite, having been permitted by the Holy Synod of Russia, was later also permitted by the Holy Synods of Antioch and Romania. As a result, the first Western Rite diocese was erected in Czechoslovakia in 1919, which yielded the Church the Martyr Bishop Gorazd Pavlik during WWII. It was followed by a diocese in Poland and, in 1936, by the Orthodox Church of France, all of which were decimated by the Germans during WWII.

Saint John of Shanghai consecrated Fr. Evgraf Kovalevsky as Western Rite as Bishop Jean-Nectaire of the Diocese of Saint Denys, Paris and strongly supported the Western Rite within ROCOR and Orthodoxy in general. He is recorded as celebrating the Western Rite Liturgy himself both in France and in the USA.
Further celebrations of the centenary of the Holy Synod of Russia decision are planned for later in the year, including a solemn pontifical celebration at the church of Saint Mary the Virgin, Waverley.

(Saint John celebrating the Western Rite Liturgy in Paris.)

The church of Saint Mary-the-Virgin at Capel-le-Ferne is used by the Saint Eanswythe Orthodox Study Society. The exact dating of the original church is difficult in that it is in the style of the pre-Schism Anglo-Saxon churches, but modified later by the Normans. It is possible that it dates from around the turn of the first millennium.

The final picture is of the procession out through the Rood Screen at the end of the Liturgy. New icons for the church were painted in the first millennium Anglo-Saxon style by the Saint Eanswythe Society's iconographer, Eadmund Dunstall (see Christ Pantocrator at the head of this article).

Labels: ,

Thursday, March 15, 2007

Happy Name Day, Ari!

According to today's entry in the Roman Martyrology, this is the:
birthday of St. Aristobulus, a disciple of the apostles, who completed by martyrdom a life spent in preaching the Gospel.
He is believed by tradition to be the brother of St. Barnabas and to have spent his life shepherding the British.

Spraznikom, Ari!

Labels: ,

So THAT'S Why We Fast!

The Fathers had similar observations (see ch. 19), but now science has provided verification for it all.

Labels: ,

Monday, March 12, 2007

Fasting Rules of Christminster Monastery, Providence, RI

This is the final installment of our discussion on Western Rite fasting. This, too, is from Ari Adams' blog. (Here are the AWRV rules and those of St. Petroc Monastery in Tasmania under ROCOR):

FASTING & ABSTINENCE - Western Orthodox Observance


In any discussion of fasting within the Universal Church, one must be aware that until very recent times uniformity of practice has never prevailed in East or West. Perhaps more than any other aspect of church observance - with the possible exception of local calendars of saints - fasting observances have varied considerably from place to place, diocese to diocese, rite to rite, country to country. What has always been maintained, however, is the importance of the principle of fasting at certain times and seasons. Only in Protestantism, modern Roman Catholicism, and even in some modernist Orthodox jurisdictions, have the discipline and wisdom of fasting been abandoned or lost.

The discipline of fasting and abstinence set forth here reflects that of the western-rite Orthodox monastic community of Christ the Saviour, as received originally into the Russian Orthodox Church, and later into the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.

Fasting and abstinence should always be reverently and prayerfully observed and should never become the occasion for any kind of pharisaical judgments or of self-righteous comparisons with those who may be less observant. Indeed, as our Lord has told us, our fasting and abstinence should be observed in such a way that non one will think to compliment it or comment on it. Our observance must be permeated with charity and humility, done out of love for God and sorrow for our sins, and should never be a source of contention or pride.


Fasting, as distinguished from abstinence, refers to the amount of food eaten and to the time of day at which meals are taken. Its essential principle is that on a fast day, only one full meal may be eaten, and this should be eaten later in the day after 3:00 PM, i.e., after the canonical hour of None. Unless the fast day is also the day of abstinence, no particular restriction is made in regard to the quantity or nature of the food or drink, moderation always being the reliable guide. For those working who may require more, traditionally a light, meatless collation may be taken at any other time of day (even before 3:00 PM if necessary), its quantity amounting to less than half of what would constitute the main meal of the day. Apart from this, no food should be eaten on a fast day.

Water does not break the fast.

Fasting is absolutely forbidden on all Sundays, Solemnities, and Greater Feasts. Additionally, since both canonical rules and the Holy Rule of Saint Benedict prohibit fasting on Saturdays, only abstinence may be observed on Saturdays in fasting seasons.

Throughout the year, except in Lent when Mondays are also observed, Wednesdays and Fridays are days of fast and abstinence, unless a Solemnity or Greater Feast should occur on one of these days. In the fast-free seasons after Christmas and between Eastern and Pentecost, fasting is not observed, but abstinence is still observed on Wednesdays and Fridays. Thus, all Wednesdays and Fridays of the year, unless they are also Solemnities or Greater Feasts, and outside of fast-free times, are also days of fasting.

Because Solemnities and Greater Feasts always begin with First Vespers the evening before the feast, any fast must conclude before the feast begins, i.e., before Vespers. Thus, fasts conclude after the office of None (3:00 PM) each day, so that no fasting occurs on a solemn feast day.


Abstinence, as distinguished from fasting, consists of refraining entirely from eating meat or poultry and gravies, soups or sauces made from meat or poultry. On days of abstinence, fish and dairy products are always permitted. Alcoholic beverages are prohibited, but wine and beer, where customary, are allowed.

Abstinence applies to any and all food taken on a particular day.

Unlike fasting, which by its nature ends when one eats, abstinence generally lasts from midnight to midnight. But on Saturdays, or on the eve of Solemnities or Greater Feasts, the abstinence ends with Vespers. Thus on a normal Saturday in Lent, while it is not a day of fast, thus permitting meals earlier in the day, these meals must be meatless at least until the evening meal is taken. Thus evening meals on Lenten Saturdays ought not to be eaten until after Vespers when liturgically the Sunday has already begun. For those who do not attend Vespers, the Sunday observance may be considered as beginning at 5:00 PM.


The Lenten observance begins on the morning of Ash Wednesday.

In Lent, all days except Saturdays and Sundays (or Solemnities & Greater Feasts) are days of fast on which one main meal may be taken after 3:00 PM, and, if needed, one other small meatless collation.

Additionally in Lent, apart from all Solemnities and Greater Feasts, all Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are days of abstinence, on which no meat or poultry may be eaten.

Only on Ember Saturday during the first week of Lent, as a special observance, is fasting added to the usual Saturday Lenten abstinence, ending, as usual, after None.

During the Sacred Triduum of Holy Week - Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday - the Lenten observance continues as usual; but on Thursday and Friday, no food is taken until after the celebration of the afternoon or evening Liturgy of each day. On Holy Saturday, because no Liturgy will be celebrated until the night service of the Great Vigil, a single meatless meal may be eaten before noontime. The Lenten fast ends with the Great Vigil and Mass of Easter.

The Advent observance begins on the Monday following the First Sunday of Advent, which is always the Sunday occurring nearest to the feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle (30 November). Its observance is identical to that of Lent, except that for the first two weeks of Advent, Monday abstinence is added to the observance. The Advent Ember Saturday is observed as in Lent, with fasting and abstinence observed until after None. The Advent observance ends with the beginning of First Vespers on the eve of the Nativity.


The Ember Days are of ancient origin and occur four times a year at the changes of the seasons, on the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of the following weeks: the first full week of Lent after the first Sunday of Lent; the week following the octave of Pentecost; after the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 September); after the Feast of Saint Lucy (13 December). Ember Days are observed with fast and abstinence. Traditionally, almsgiving should also mark these times.

The Rogation Days, which are Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday before Ascension Thursday, are observed with abstinence only, as these occur within the fast-free season of Eastertide. These days are dedicated to prayer for those being ordained to Holy Orders.


Fasting is observed on the Vigils (i.e., the day preceding) of certain major feasts, ending before First Vespers. These vigils are observed for the following: all feasts of Apostles and Evangelists, Christmas (24 December), St. John Baptist (23 June), St. Lawrence (9 August), Assumption (14 August), All Saints (31 October). If these vigils fall on a Sunday, the observance, unless impeded by a Solemnity or Feast, is moved back to Saturday and is observed with abstinence (fasting not being observed on Saturdays apart from Embertides).

Vigils of Apostles which occur during Eastertide are observed with abstinence instead of fasting. Thus no meat may be eaten until after First Vespers on these days.


Fasting is not observed throughout the season from Christmas to Epiphany, or from Easter to the end of the Pentecost Octave. Abstinence, however, is observed as usual on Wednesdays and Fridays during these seasons unless a Solemnity or Greater Feast should occur.


For those receiving Holy Communion, no food or drink is permitted from the preceding midnight until after Mass. In those instances where, for pastoral reason, Mass may be celebrated in the evening, those wishing to receive Holy Communion must fast from noontime at least, if they are unable to fast entirely from the preceding midnight. The only exceptions to this are Maundy Thursday and Good Friday, when all are obliged to fast until after the evening Liturgies whether receiving Holy Communion or not.


Special fasts may be observed on the occasions of Baptism, Confirmation, Ordinations and similar circumstances as ordered by the Bishop or Abbot. Private fasts observed for personal reasons may be permitted so long as they do not violate the regular fasts as set forth here. In such cases, the person should always act under the guidance and with the blessing of his confessor or spiritual father. Similarly, anyone who may require an exemption from any prescribed fast or abstinence may ask a confessor for such permission. Exemption may be legitimately presumed for those who are physically weak, sick, very old, very young, or in any reasonable necessity. Children should be gradually educated and trained in fasting and can be taught abstinence from an early age.

Christminster, led by Fr. James Deschene, is a canonical Orthodox monastery in the Benedictine tradition.

Labels: ,

Fasting Rules for St. Petroc Monastery, usus Cascadae

To tie in with our discussion of Orthodox fasting rules, here originally posted on Ari Adams' blog:

I have this, from the back of the calendar put out by the 'English Orthodox' of ROCOR Down Under, Saint Petroc Monastery (used also by their parishes and missions.) Julian Calendar, Western Rite - as in all the British world before 1745, and as it still is on Skellig Michael in Ireland.


The Advent Fast is for forty days, through to the eve of the Holy Nativity, during which period fish may be eaten. The exception to this is the Feast of Saint Finnian, Skellig Michael Monastery and Orthodox Monasticism in the West (25th of December) on which day the fast is entirely relaxed.

Lent begins on the Monday of the fifth week before Holy Week, and continues through Holy Week. Abstention from meat, fish and dairy products is observed, except on Palm Sunday and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 7th of April, when fish may be eaten. On Saturdays and Sundays of Lent, wine, oil and fish may be eaten. This selection of foods is applied to the other fast periods mentioned below, except when indicated otherwise.

The Fast of the Holy Apostles starts on Monday after of All Saints Day and ends on the celebration of Apostles Peter and Paul. The Fast of the Dormition runs for a fortnight up to the Dormition of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Wednesday and Friday of every week throughout the year.

The day before the Epiphany.

The day of the Beheading of Saint John the Baptist.

Prescribed days of Prayer and Fasting

Ember Days. Four groups of three days each. Where these fall inside a more extensive fast, they are observed as strict days.

  1. The Wednesday, Friday and Saturday following the Feast of Saint Lucy (27th of December).
  2. The Wednesday, Friday and Saturday following the first Sunday of Lent.
  3. The Wednesday, Friday and Saturday following Whitsunday
  4. The Wednesday, Friday and Saturday following the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (27th of September).

Rogation Days. The Major Rogation is the 25th of April and the Minor Rogations are the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday before the Feast of the Ascension. On such days, as well as fasting, the Great Litany shall be sung in the church. This practice dates from about AD470.

And commentary from Fr. Hieromonk Michael [about the Church in England, on whose practices St. Petroc is based, not necessarily in all of the West - BJ]:

Originally, the western Church kept an Advent of six Sundays before the Nativity. Some date the change to the shorter Advent (in England) to the Norman Conquest...

...In the first millennium, Advent was begun from the feast of Saint Martin (11 Nov).

The fast before the Feast of Saint Peter and Paul - as it anciently was up until the reformation in England and as John Cosin wanted to restore (see his Durham Prayer Book) is added here.

...the relaxation of the fast for the major festival of Saint Finnian, Skellig Michael and monasticism in the west is deliberately elevated in order that divided families may celebrate together on the 25th [of December-BJ] without problems for anyone."


Ari adds, "I believe the rules I have posted are for the parishes and missions under their care or associated with them, and not the rules of the monastery itself."

Labels: ,